vi /etc/default/grub Find the line with "GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT" Add `intel_iommu=on` or `amd_iommu=on` Save `update-grub`
PCIe ACS Override
There are motherboards that bundle peripherals together (does not support ACS)
A workaround is to override PCIe ACS by adding
This flags the kernel that a device can be “isolated”. It might have security and stability issues.
- [PATCH] pci: Enable overrides for missing ACS capabilities https://lkml.org/lkml/2013/5/30/513
- IOMMU Groups, inside and out http://vfio.blogspot.com/2014/08/iommu-groups-inside-and-out.html